What is Quantum Computing? – BBC Click

this week the wide world of 360 videothe artistic world of Marina Abramovic and the strange world of quantumcomputers imagine a computer that could crack 

theworld's most secure codes in minutes design extraordinary new medicines evenpave the way to intelligent machines big tech companies like Google IBM andMicrosoft are all

trying to be the first to achieve a breakthrough in the fieldof quantum computing but well we're not quite there yet at the moment if youwant a quantum computer you need all of this you need your ionizing lasers yourcooling lasers and your processor you need all of this and

currently all thiscan do is add a 0 and a 1 but it does do it in a really cool way quantumcomputers harness weird wonderful phenomenon seen only at very smallscales the data in an ordinary computer isrepresented as bits each of which can either be 0 or 1 a

quantum computerinstead uses quantum bits or qubits now these qubits can be both 0 and 1 at thesame time this is called superposition and it's a key feature of a quantumcomputers unique powers so when a quantum computer adds a 0 and a 1 it'salso adding a 1 and a

0 and a 1 and a 1 and a 0 and a 0 all at the same time sonumber-crunching could in theory be done much faster on a quantum computer thereare a few really important things that we know they will be able to do if wecan ever build them

so one thing is searching through a database let's sayyou've got a list of about a million items say and you want to find oneparticular item through that list well all an ordinary computer can do is lookthrough that list one item at a time look at the first item

the second itemthe third item until eventually you find the item that you're looking for aquantum computer can in some sense look at all those items simultaneously weknow that quantum computers will be able to help artificial intelligences learnbetter learn faster optimizing things designing things if you're trying todesign they

say that the shape of a car so that air will flow over it in exactlythe right way that's an optimization problemit looks like quantum computers are going to be extremely good at thatand then there's code breaking if you give an ordinary computer a code tobreak it will try

every possible combination one at a time but give aquantum computer a code to break and it can try all the codes at once this is ahuge area of application of quantum computers and it's really thefinancially the driving force in putting money into the industry and persuadingpeople to really

try to build these things the first government which has afunctional quantum computer which can break break into secret messages isgoing to be as a big advantage and maybe we want to try and hide away the factthat they've got those capabilities and if super position wasn't weird enough aquantum

computers qubits can be paired up or entangled and then caninstantaneously affect each other from anywhere else in the universe wellthat's all very well in theory but it is really hard in practice at SussexUniversity researchers are preparing for the challenge of scaling up theirprototype quantum computers to take them

from handfuls of qubits on the lab benchto industrial scale so what do you see is an actual working quantum computer aswe're filming this you can literally see an atom for example be in one state andanother state simultaneously and what you see on the screen is the evidencethat really

occurs that you really the atoms and this very very strange andcounterintuitive state so quantum computers have been in a way for a longlong time the holy grail of science and and with that it actually seemed nearlyimpossible to builtin and people felt maybe it's just never possible to buildvirtual

machine the reason why it's so hard because to control quantum effectsin such a way allowing us to build a large-scale quantum computer istremendously hard quantum effects like that an atom can be at two differentplaces at the same time more entanglement with Einstein referred tospooky he said just so

hard to controlat the moment these prototypes offer a glimpse of how these computers mightwork in the future but how will we use them when we havethem what is a quantum computer program the basic building blocks of a quantumcomputer program are really very alien to us they're things like

superpositionand entanglement those are the right high-level concepts to be to put intoour quantum computer programs but it's very hard for the human brain tounderstand what entanglement is and what its consequences are thinking of qubitsis connected by pieces of string actually works extremely well to help usdesign and predict

designer quantum programs and predict what they will doso perhaps a high-level quantum programming language of the future couldlook like a sort of could look like a knot or could look like a children'sgame with untangling the fishing lines and see who's got which fish you couldimagine drawing all these

strings and having them connected to each other andgoing up and going down and coiled around and the pattern of how thosestrings interact that pattern is your content programI do feel the programmers have a little bit of time to sort their software outthough because the hardware is also still

a work in progress I've goneunderground to see Oxford University's quantum computer the lab is a wizard'sparadise of lasers vacuum chambers and traps for atom sized particles in the lab they've achieved a worldrecord level of control over their quantum bits they can even show off bymaking a single qubit

glow in Morse code see L I see kaif click what will yourquantum computer looks like you won't be this size thing so ideally it looksincredibly boring and incredibly small so when we build something like this ittakes an optics tables this is 2 meters by 1 meter by 1

meter high we think wecan get this down to something that size of a shoebox in the next 5 years onceyou've got everything in there once we have everything that my place machinedown optimized and rather than made by physicists made by engineers to makesomething that actually works rather than

has enough knobs on that when youhave enough people twisting them they do something right once you're not lookingto put more and more qubits into the same box ie what we want to do is builddevices that can contain about 5 or 10 cubits we build many of these devicesand

hook them together of our network this is the same way as if you have asupercomputer nowadays you don't have one big computer you have lots ofsmaller computers that hook together in data center these data centers thrummingwith lots and lots of different machines and lots of blinking lights that's

whatwe envisage these things are it does sound like it's not the most efficientdesign if you're plugging lots of these things together with optic fiber ratherthan making a quantum computer that has 50 cubits in one place yeah the mostefficient device we can ever build and have all the qubits

being able to talkto every other qubit and that's really you know where ideally you'd want to bebut you'll always get to the point where you can't put any more qubits in yourdevice where you're built a device is so big you can't build a bigger one and atthat point

what we want to do is have a network we can build up so once you'vegot as big as you can with these techniques you can then network themtogether to build bigger networks the huge potential of quantum computinghas attracted big tech players Google told us it will have somethingbig

to announce in March 2018 iBM has a 20 cubic quantum computer theresearchers can program over the Internet both these companies are tryingto build reliable quantum computers of around 50 cubits now at this point theywill achieve something called quantum supremacy which sounds world-changingbut it might not be why I

don't like the phrase is that when you cross thatboundary nothing instantaneously magical happensit's just the point at which you can't predict what the Machine would do it'sthe point that the machine might be useful for something but to be honest wehaven't worked out anything that has a 60 cubits

quantum computer couldusefully do so it's into the uncharted territory very exciting but it's not thepoint at which the quantum hardware is supreme you should not throw where youriPhone or your desktop computer or even your supercomputer and have a quantumcomputer instead so with more tech companies getting serious about

quantumcomputing there is now a place for them to show off their ideas it is thequantum technologies fair in London and Kat Hawkins has been along to see whatis on the quantum horizon when it comes to quantum computing a lot of theresearch still seems to be happening very much

in academia but I wanted tofind out how much of it is being taken away from the lab bench for applicationsin the real world every stall at this fair is using the same tech used inquantum computing the principles of trapping manipulating and measuring tinyatoms sized particles but the practical

applications here are creative andpotentially life-changing from diamonds used in heart disease sensing tocapturing individual virus particles they're really designed to be able tomeasure very very sensitively at very very smallscales so it's ideal for things like nanoparticles like viruses and indeedfor measuring chemical signatures as well use the mouse

to move that scalebar back and forth it should be fairly obvious when it flashes really brightthat's when it Wiggles around that's when you've got a particle trapped inyour resonator the ultimate aim is that viruses could be picked up using thisdiagnostic tool but the main focus now for most

people here is on overcomingthe engineering challenge of making large bulky systems a lot lot smallerheavy industry all the way through to defense and security transport and thenhealthcare technologies it's incredible to see how many stores here areresearching so many different areas and they're all working together with anopen source

mentality along with a lot of investment the British governmentspent 270 million pounds over the last five years on quantum technologyresearch the collaborative element especially the number of things that MPLis involved in because we have a lot of the core technology and science andwe're just looking you know what

are the actual applications in the UK businessworld from afar a lot of the applications here still look likecomplex machinery but and Curtis has been looking into its potentials in animportant area far far away so one of the main applications we can use forquantum technologies is quantum sensors and

what we're doing in this experimentis we want a sense greenhouse gases and measure how much there is how that'schanging over time and one good way to monitor large-scale systems is fromspace to put something properly on a satellite it has to go through all thisspace qualifying test so every

item in there would have to be space qualifiedmost of the fiber technology isn't so good in space due to radiationyou know effects but there's no reason why this couldn't be miniaturizing foropen space it's just the next stage of funding it's so hard to be here todayand not feel

excited about quantum technologies but one thing everybody whosaid to me is that their particular real-world applications are a few yearsin the future still so when it comes to fronting computing it's still very mucha case of watch this space hello and welcome to the week in tech it was

theweek that the Federal Communications Commission in America voted to repealrules on net neutrality which had stopped Internet service providers fromoffering different speeds and priorities for traffic online the extraordinarilyelongated interstellar asteroid Kumu amoAwas being checked for signs of alien technology and here on earth the facesof two billion people

can be compared in a matter of seconds with Minority Reportstyle system dragonfly I unveiled in China it was also the week that Netflixwas caught up in a creepy viewing controversy after revealing on Twitterthat fifty-three subscribers watched the holiday film a Christmas friend's everyday for 18 days in a

row Netflix defended the tweet saying itrepresented overall trends and not specific individuals the city of SanFrancisco has banned the use of delivery robots on most of its sidewalks statingnot all innovation is all that great for society meanwhile Dutch police say itmay not have been such a good idea

to use Eagles to catch drones after all whocould have guessed seen here unclick the birds were trained to snatch themachines in the sky but the cost of keeping the Eagles was too high for toolow demand and it didn't always do what they were told and finally if you'remissing

Harry Potter don't despair artificial intelligence may have asolution for you a new chapter has been created for a book called Harry Potterand what looked like a portrait of a large pile of ash its plot twistsinclude Harry dipping Hermione in hot sauce and Ron turning into spiders andtrying to

eat her – fan wizard now earlier in the year we lookedat some of the 360 cameras that are taken off in 2017 Dan filmed with thenew kid on the block the insta one in Berlin and he came back very pleasedwith it easy to use lots of features including

this bullet time mode a bitlike in the film The Matrix where you can get the picture of yourself from allangles but what are the more established names in photography got to offer uswell with Christmas just around the corner this time we sent down to asuitably festive place to

put two prosumer 360 cams through their pacesthe ancient city of Bath hosts a very traditional Christmas market one that Iwant to catch in the round I've got two cameras for the job ones from Kodak theother is Nick Homs they look pretty similar with two ultra wide-angle lensescapturing everything

before the two images are stitched together in camerabut look closer and you'll see the Kodak sporting two different lenses onesmaller than the other super white 235 degree lens it's also got the tiniestremote control in the world and a slightly higher price tag than the Nikon our producer mayonnaise

has the Kodakwhile I'm putting the Nick on to its paces now we don't just want to testthese cameras out in the daylight when all the conditions are absolutelyperfect for these cameras we want to test them out to see what they're likeas it starts to get dark well the

bright lights be a problem andwell we see all of the detail time to go full wonder and see who's 360 is bestplease dive in ladies don't let me get in your way and in no time at all Ifound the festive liquor stand not just wine but flavored vodkas

here and thenickens not put off by those flashing lights but the image is a little dark sowe'll brighten it for you in post there we go and now you can see the otherproblem the image stitching means I've almost lost my head before touching ajob the Kodak's picture is

brighter than the nickens but we found that thequality from that super wide angle lens was softer than the smaller lens ithouses on the other side of the device of courseyou're best off with a stick attached to both of these cams otherwise your handsget sort of in the way

now to make the test Pharaoh we decidedto see how these camps fared back to back your front to front to back to funwell it's difficult to tell to be honest we shot them side-by-side we found a 360 globe camera and it's thenikon showing off more natural colors benefiting

from a more accurate whitebalance although some might prefer the warmer kodak results as it's veryChristmasy at the chilly side is shop againKodak warmed things up while Nichkhun kept things more natural and crisp bothcameras struggled to perfectly stitch their two shots together this is the rawfootage with no touching

up and the nickens done a reasonable jobthe stitching point is more visible on the kodak partly because of thedifferent qualities of those two lenses on the upside its kodak that offers theability to play with how the images are stitched together in it's free softwaresomething the nickens more basic

offering lacks for sure if fun the kodakalso offers greater flexibility when playing back what you shot this islittle planet mode and if you want to do it on the Nikon then you'll need somethird-party 360 software which may mean additional cost finally the thing thateveryone forgets when they use

a camera sound we reckon both do a great job butthe Nikon is slightly clearer although the Kodak offers thepossibility of attaching an external mic so which camera will enthusiasts behoping Santa brings them this year we think the Kodak edges it for easier postproduction while the Nikon has a

better shot but if you're hoping for atrouble-free cinematic seamless result for under 400 poundsyou may have to wait until something else takes off at least for now this isa cute art a virtual reality arts platform and a gallery without walls andit's about to launch with VR works by

some of the world's leading contemporaryartists amongst these works is one by Marina Abramovic the self-confessedgrandmother of performance art who pushes her own body to the limits as avehicle to challenge and move people she seems to want to talk to me but thewater is it's rising she family in

real life when someone rescues another personor office aid of any kind there is a transfer of energy do you think shewants me to touch the glass me oh oh okay right now I'm somewhere verycold and everything seems to be going wrongas always with VR you really get a

sense of scale I mean that ice shelf looksabsolutely enormous and it's crashing down right in front of me this work isan expression of marinas fear that humans will not survive the consequencesof climate change if we don't change our behavior they covered in spray and now there's anote I

will walk instead of drive I will reuse what I can I will reducethe waste I create Marina wants to leave the participants with the feeling thatthey should do something good for the planet we have to save this planet whichwe are living in because what travel are interesting isto

create the literally contract with the you know with the planet Earth andgive my word of honor that I will do something to say you are pretty wellknown for pushing your body further than most people would want to push theirbodies here you appear virtually in a tank of water

but I get the sense thatyou still did some pretty real stuff to make it seem as real as possibleyou know actually to do this I have to really be in the water and then we haveto really be in the swimming pool and with the two divers holding my

legs thatI can really go in and sink and feel what means floaties and what meansactually dying if you don't have any more than air to breathe so it's funnythat you have to do something which is virtual but you still have to dophysically before you've said that you don't

think your performances can becaptured adequately with with photos or video because you need to be there youneed the experiences is actually physically being there and I wonderwhether virtual reality is close enough to being there that's why you chose itbecause it's it's kind of almost being there as it's

very important that kindof energy dialogue between audience and the performer and the only the thing cancatch it was before was just video because you can get sound in momentsvirtual realities is really another Stepfatherbecause you can go around the objects you can interact you can do this butstill I

think that so much question how much energy it carriesI actually can trust Ram be transmitted from the real performance into that thevirtual body the run of the mesmerising Marina Abramovic and we'll hear morefrom marina in next week's program which is the Christmas show so expect tons ofsensible journalism

and no fun whatsoever maybe in the meantime you canfollow us on Facebook and on Twitter where we live at BBC click thanks forwatching and we'll see you next week for Christmas


Nhận xét

Bài đăng phổ biến từ blog này